There's a lot of mis-information and prejudice out there with regards to cycling, much of it spread by anecdotes.  Below is a list of sources of objective information, some of it specific to Cambridge.

Cambridge Specific Statistics

I have analysed STATS19 data for Cambridge City 2009-2011. The is probably the most detailed source of accident data published anywhere except the raw data itself.

Summary information 2009-2011:
  • Casualties: 155 pedestrians; 369 car occupants; 694 cyclists.
  • Vehicles involved in collisions with cyclists: 490 cars; 45 light goods; 12 goods; 31 bus;
  • Pedestrians injured by: 87 cars (25 serious, 62 slight); 27 cyclists (3 serious, 24 slight).
  • Casualties % at night: car occupant 36%; pedestrian 30%; cyclist 25%
  • Pedestrians injured on a crossing by: motor vehicles 22; pedal cycle 6;
  • Pedestrians injured on footway/verge: motor vehicles 22 (4 serious); pedal cycle 6 (all slight).
  • Cyclist location when injured: 95 using a cycle facility; 579 on the main carriageway.
For more detail, read my full report here.

The DfT provided me with Contributory Factor data for Cambridge City 2009-2011. This has not been published anywhere else. View here.

Contributory Factors 2009-2011 (all vehicle types).
  • Failed to look properly: 335 / 48%
  • Failed to judge other person’s path or speed: 126 / 18%
  • Poor turn or manoeuvre: 107 / 15%
  • Careless, reckless or in a hurry: 86 / 12%
  • Cyclist wearing dark clothing at night: 14 / 2%
  • Not displaying lights at night or in poor visibility: 8 / 1%
  • Vehicle door opened or closed negligently: 8 / 1%

Travel for Work 2011 reports that 22% commute by bicycle. Note the core group indicates 26%.

59% of KSI reported collisions for Cambridge involved cyclists (note this says nothing about fault).
... that's 2.7 times the 22% cycling rate that Travel for Work 2011 reports.

UK Statistics

With adult cyclists, police found the driver solely responsible in about 60%-75% of all cases, and riders solely at fault 17%-25% of the time. (cites TRL research of data 2005-09)

3% of all collisions leading to deaths or serious injuries took place on bike lanes, and almost 80% of casualties happened during daylight hours. Just over 15% of all such accidents involved the cyclist alone. (cites TRL research of data 2005-09)

DfT Statistics Series: Road Accidents and Safety

List of DfT government statistics (RAS) 2011, published Sept 2012:

The number of pedal cyclists killed fell by 4 per cent from 111 in 2010 to 107 in 2011. However, the number of casualties reported to the police as seriously injured in a road accident increased by 16 per cent to 3,085. Total reported casualties among pedal cyclists also rose, by 12 per cent, compared to 2010. Pedal cyclist traffic levels are estimated to have risen by 2.2 per cent over the same period.
Reported road casualties Great Britain: main results 2011 (click pdf)

Lights and wearing dark clothing are contributary factors in 0% of accidents in all regions of the UK.
(note: non zero count)
RAS50013 Contributory factors: Reported accidents by region, England

The contributary factors are:

Impairment or distraction:
- Not displaying lights at night or in poor visibility 0%
- Cyclist wearing dark clothing at night 0%

The largest contributary factor in collisions is failing to look properly. The blame for this is heavily skewed towards LGV and cars.
RAS50014 Two vehicle accidents in which a driver or rider had "failed to look properly" as a contributory factor: GB 2011
cycle 18% - 49% lgv
cycle 21% - 45% car
cycle 18% - 30% hgv
cycle 32% - 24% bus/coach
cycle 38% - 22% motorcycle

40% of accidents have Failed to Look Properly as the contributary factor in 2010.  See Table RAS50002:

Hit and Runs
"Nearly 1 in every 6 pedal cyclist casualties (16 per cent) in the UK".
Source: Critical Mass interpreting DfT.

Hit and Runs in London 2004. 80% caused by private cars, 1% bicycles.
Source: Table 4, TfL

25,023 people Killed or Seriously injured on the road in 2011. 1 in 2500.
25,023+178,927=203,950 Killed, Seriously injured, slightly injured. 1 in 300.

Red Light Jumping:

Proportion of Cyclists Who Violate Red Lights in London

Mobile Phone Use By Drivers 2009 (DfT)
Car drivers: Hand-held 1.4%, Hands-free 1.4%, total 2.8%.
Van and Lorry drivers: Hand-held 2.6%, Hands-free 2.4%, total 5.0%.
"Using hand-held is not illegal".
Matt Staton, from the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Road Safety Partnership, said: “...Research shows that drivers are four times more likely to crash if they are using a mobile phone with this risk increasing further if the driver is texting or emailing using a smartphone".

Valuation of Road Accidents by the DfT
See Table 2, valuation from 2009.
Built-up roads <=40mph: Fatal=£1,730,850; Serious=£196,590; Slight=£20,250
Non Built-up >40mph: Fatal=£1,826,110; Serious=£221,100; Slight=£24,000
Motorways: Fatal=£1,952,830; Serious=£234,010; Slight=£28,500
All roads: Fatal=£1,790,200; Serious=£205,060; Slight=£21,370

Nighttime Cycling: Accidents, Lights, and Laws in Europe  Abstract for the International Cycling Safety Conference 2013, Roland Huhn.
About 7% of bicycle accidents at night are due to missing or defective lighting.
Only a small number of nighttime accidents can be clearly attributed to the
lack of lights: Other major risk factors are driving or riding under the influence of alcohol, high-
er driving speeds on empty roads at night and impaired night vision especially in older drivers.

Interesting numbers but not statistically comparable:

November [2012] Think Campaign

(Note: clarification by PC Gedney on Twitter "These figures will have been as a result of officers coming across offences during patrol along with road safety ops". Although he may mean for motoring, I'm sure there was a PCSO campaign for cyclists in that period)
03/12/2012 15:46:54

MORE than 370 fines were issued to motorists and cyclists during the November 'Think' campaign.

'Be safe, be seen' was the message from Cambridgeshire police as they launched a month long visibility campaign on November 1.

The action was part of the November 'Think' campaign and saw officers targeting vehicles with defects which impacted on their visibility and cyclists without lights.

A total of 379 fixed penalty notices were issued during the month, some of the results included:

- 39 fixed penalty notices (FPNs) issued for tinted windows
- 24 fines issued for misuse of fog lights
- 10 verbal warnings were given to drivers for misuse of lights
- Two vehicles were issued with vehicle defect rectification scheme notices for cracked front windscreens
- One fine for an obscured windscreen
- 185 FPNs were issued to cyclists for having no lights and 64 verbal warnings were given
- 130 FPNs were issued for lighting offences on vehicles
- 71 vehicles were issued with vehicle defect rectification scheme notices for lighting defects
- Three vehicles were stopped from driving their vehicle until it was repaired due to brake light offences
- 86 verbal warnings were given to drivers for lighting defects

Sergeant Gordon Murray said: "These results show that there are still far too many road users who think it is acceptable to commit offences when on our county's roads.
"Our message is simple - 'be safe, be seen' - whether you are a pedestrian, cyclist or motorist. Everyone has a part to play."

Watch out for bias

Confirmation Bias

News Frames.

No comments:

Post a Comment